Veterinary


Title: Separating and identifying the influenza virus in pigeons
     By: Dr. Mehdi Vasfi Marandi - Dr. Mohammad hassan Bozorgmehri Fard
     Date: 09-08-77
The influenza viruses cause a kind of contagious disease which stays  in aspiration, digestion and nervous systems.  Sometimes this disease can kill many birds .  The viruses are divided into different groups: One is the influenza virus with high power (HPAI) and the other one is not high power influenza virus (n HPAI).  The influenza virus contains RAM which is made of eight separated parts.  That is what makes them contagious and for the same reason they can highly do genetic rearrangements. It is hard to prevent and cure the disease too.  According to Neoclo Copxide or Matrix anti genes these viruses are divided into three groups; A, B and C.  The A group is the main factor which spreads out the flu among birds.  The most important anti genes of the influenza viruses are Hemaglotenien (HA) and Noramin Aidaz  (NH).   In Iran, the viruses of the birds weren't separated from the pigeons.  After identifying the disease in Faculty of Veterinary in University of Tehran in Khordad 77, some researches have been done on some samples of lung, kidney, liver and esophagus.  The identified bacteria was not separated from the samples.  Throgh the  experiments the identifying serum  in most of the samples shows that the increased amount of anti body doesn't have anything to do with Newcastle virus. A severe kind of Newcastle virus was separated from the ovary.  Most of the samples were separated with positive Hemaglotenien (HA).  The anti serum called Refrance which can prevent the activity of Hemaglo Teniasion (HI).  Meanwhile the anti serum which was taken from the contaminated farms was positively active (HI)  The Mono Cloneal anti body was against the eight groups of the influenza virus.  The results show that was the same virus which caused the pigeon influenza.

Title : The possibility of sub-types of different kinds of flu viruses
     By: Dr. Mehdi Kianizadeh
     Date: 09-08-77
The chicken flu virus is a part of RNA viruse which includes eight separated parts.  As the number of its parts increases the possibility of mutation and changes in viruses will increase.  The two types of protein NA, HA protect the host and can cause the most anti genetic changes which provide new sub-types of viruses.  The new changes can form antigenic drift which replace the virus from highly group into the low pathogen group, which is called Antigenic Drift.  In most cases the flu cycles in one level of many sub-types of a virus.  This makes it hard to identify the virus, vaccinate the sick chickens and  control the curing programs.  After separating the virus of the flu and verify the sub-types H9N2. There were some cases among cattle which showed the existence of the disease, that means there must exist another sub-type.

Title: A general information about the usage of vaccine against the flu in birds
    By: Dr. Seyed Ali Ghafoori
    Date: 09-08-77
Vaccinating the birds against the flu is becoming an important matter to the experts.  While this matter was discussed in the  Fourth World Symposium. The new vaccine has changed the strategy lately.  By going over the new contagious disease caused by different forms of Highly pathogenic in Pennsylvania and Mexico shows that in both areas the disease had been spread out because of Low pathogenic flu.  The Low pathogenic flu's virus was in the area for six months.  And even after the Highly pathogenic case occurred, it was still in the area.  The results show that because of not preventing the Low pathogenic case the Highly pathogenic occurred.  Vaccinating is an important factor to control the disease.  If we accept such reality we must use all the possible controlling aspects.  One of the unfortunate facts in the mentioned areas was the disease spread out in both cases at the same time.  This can make problems for such industry, because controlling different cases is very difficult.  There are problems like not vanishing contamination, not preventing the virus by the contaminated birds and problems about the serum testing.  Using vaccine, teaching health caring, protecting the environment and isolating the sick cases can reduce the problem.  This way the vaccine can lessen the death and quality and quantity of the errors.

Title : Serologic review of the birds flu by using inactive anti gene in Razi Institute .
     By: Dr: Seyed Ali Poorbakhesh.
     Date: 09-08-77
The Orthomixo viruses and influenza viruses are the main reason of bird flu .The viruses stay in aspiration , digestion and nervous system .They can kill the birds too. The sea birds and migrating birds are the sources of these viruses. But the number of death is limited among those birds.  The most number of death was in poultry and among turkeys .The flu viruses are divided into three different types: A,B and C based on Neoclo Copcide or Matrix. The A type is the main factor of most cases.
Following the spread out of the bird flu in Tehran and Qazvin provinces,  the viruses on SPF eggs were separated. The completing tests were done on the pure virus by the special anti serums against the virus too. The A type virus was identified by H9N2.
Because of preventing the flu spread out among other provinces , the disease was evaluated by HI method using inactive anti genes. The results showed that the virus was inactive in 37 degree centigrade in 24 hours under the influence of Fermaldid.  After centrifuging it and injecting it in to the SPF egg,  its inactivity was verified.  And the results showed that 25.4% of the serums could identify 64% of positive cases.

Title: Knowing and identifying the flu among the pigeons in Iran.
     By: Dr. Hohammadhassan Bozorgmehrifard-Dr. Mehdi Vasfimarandi.
     Date: 09-08-77
The pigeon flu insone of the most important and dangerous diseases which can cause the most number of death among birds. This disease is caused by Orthomixo viruses or flu viruses. The viruses stay in inspiration and digestion system of the birds. They get reproduced in contaminated birds and they directly transfer among birds through breathing and urine.The viruses can be transferred  indirect  through food or water. There are three different types of viruses A,B and C based on Neoclo copcide or Matrix anti genes. The most important anti genes for flu viruses are Hemaclotinin ( HA) and Noraminidaz ( NA). The severe cases of contamination were among pigeons and turkeys. This disease has been reported from all over the world and has been a great damage to the industry. The flu among pigeons are divided in to three groups extra severe, severe, not severe cases. The severe cases are caused by n HPAI viruses and the extra severe cases are caused by HPAI viruses. The pigeon flu was first identified by Faculty of Veterinary in University of Tehran and was separated from the sick pigeons. The separated virus includes the A type based on H9N2 and n HPAI. This flu occurred among Tehran and Qazvin provinces poultry against Newcastle, Laringo trake it. The symptoms were shown as loss of appetite, less eggs were laid, less chicks were born, depression  and sneeze.
The researches showed that during Mehr and Aban the flu cases reduced among the hens .But the disease has been increased among the cattle. Through the results the best way to prevent the flu in Tehran and Qazvin provinces is H9N2.

Title: Chronic tympany in a cow associated with the esophageal obstruction
    By: Dr. G. Abdollahpour
    Date: 07/6-10/98
The differential diagnosis of chronic ruminal tympany  in cattle is not always straightforward. The diagnosis of chronic tympany in cattle depends on a careful  routine clinical examination. A four-year old cow was referred to the Large Animal Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, university of Tehran, with signs of chronic and recurrent regurgitation, anorexia, grunting for the last one month. Clinical examination using a stomach tube revealed an obstruction in the thoracic part of esophagus. As the prognosis was quite poor, the cow was slaughtered and a thorough autopsy was carried out. Postmortem examination revealed a preoesophageal abscess with a fistula in the esophageal wall  adjacent to the  mediastinal lymph nodes. The results of clinical and postmortem  examinations indicated that the mediastinal space-occupying abscess along with bilateral symmetrical enlargement of lymph nodes were the main causes of chronic tympany  in this clinical case.

Title: Experimental infection of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo- bovis in pregnant heifers
    By: Dr. G. Abdollahpour
    Date: 07/6-10/98
Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and hardjo are responsible for most bovine leptospirosis in the world. Serovar pomona is a well-known cause of bovine abortion. Serovar hardjo is maintained within the bovine population, and has a relatively low pathogenicity for this species. Three pregnant Aberdeen Angus heifers  which  were  serologically and bacteriologically negative were used. The heifers were  exposed to 10 mL of urine of a  naturally infected heifer, which was shedding Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo- bovis, containing 2.5 X 105 leptospira /mL , over a 5 min period on  3 consecutive days. All heifers became infected and Leptospira interrogans serovar harhjo type hardjo-bovis was demonstrated in their urine  and blood  samples using  polymerase chain reaction, immonofluorescent antibody test and bacteriologic culture in different occasions. Except a transient pyrexia in 2 cows at 8 days after exposure no other clinical signs were seen. The results of this experiment showed that all of the pregnant heifers infected with serovar L. hardjo produced a full term calves. These results may support the view that L. hardjo is not a major cause of bovin abortion  in Australian cattle population.

Title: Identification of a Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa isolated from a heifer by restriction
              endonuclease analysis and PCR combined with REA
    By: Dr. G. Abdollahpour
    Date: 07/6-10/98
The isolation and serogrouping of a leptospiral strain belonging to serogroup Grippotyphosa ( U1-121) from a cow  was reported by Abdollahpour et al (1996). This paper compares isolate U1-121 with reference strains Lptospires using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and polymerase and chain reaction (PCR). REA patterns of strain U!-121 and the reference strain grippotyphosa Moskva V, Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo subtype hardjobovis, hardjoprajitno and serovar pomona strain pomona were compared.
Strain U1- 121 was also compared with the reference  strains using a PCR combined  with REA. The results of REA using  whole DNA genome showed that strain U1-121 had a Hhal  REA pattern which could easily be differentiated from the reference strain of L. grippotyphosa. Also this strain had a pattern that was distinct from other reference strains of Leptospira.
The results of restriction fragment profiles of  the 849 bp PCR products showed that the 3 isolations of grippotyphosa had a pattern identical to that of grippotyphosa Moskva with prominent bands approximately 500 bp and 320 bp.
 

Title: Outbreaks of fascioliasis in a flock of sheep in Tehran suburb Acute liver disfuncntion associated with
              fascioliasis in a ewe
    By: Dr. G. Abdolllahpour
    Date: 07/6-10/98
Infection of sheep with fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, resulted in significant economic losses to sheep flock. Acute fascioliasis in sheep is often a syndrome of death with or without other apparent clinical abnormality. In March 1997, a flock of 517 sheep in south of Tehran, which had 12 sick and 20 death in one month period was visited. The clinical signs were dullness, weakness, lack of appetite, pallor of the mucous membrane. Some of the animals showed submandibular edema, wool loss and ascites. Microscopic examination of the fecal samples revealed a large numbers of characteristic, operculated fluke eggs.
The homograme showed lokosytosis with left shifted and  a low packed cell volume. Thorough autopsy was carried out on one of the ewe which showed these signs along with dyspene, tachycardia and hypotermia. The main findings  in autopsy were, adhesion of the left lobe of lung, large numbers of cysts on the surface of liver and lung. Presence of large number of leaf like flukes in grossly  enlarged and thickened bile ducts which protruded above the surface of the liver. It seems that the main cause of death was liver fluke didease. In the present communication the results of  the clinical and paraclinical examinations are discussed.